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hepatorenal syndrome

Cirrhosis causes Hepatorenal Syndrome. How?

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Cirrhosis causes severe liver scarring that makes it completely dysfunctional at its terminal stage or when exposed to alcohol or viral infections for long-term.

Do you know? If a person is a cirrhotic patient, then the chances of development of Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) with ascites are 8-20% each year which rises to 40 percent after 5 years.

What is Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS)?

Hepatorenal Syndrome is a type of renal failure that occurs in people with advanced liver disease, mostly caused by cirrhosis. As the pair of kidneys filter out waste from the body, therefore, once it stops functioning properly, waste starts to build up in the body which leads to renal failure.

Does Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) have any types? If yes, define them.

Depending on the severity of the kidneys, HRS is of two types. Type 1 HRS is related to progressive kidney failure which happens due to excess production of creatinine. Type 2 HRS is associated with subacute kidney failure that progresses slowly and steadily.

Experts say that type 1 HRS patients survive for a maximum two weeks while type 2 HRS patients survive upto six months. According to a team of the best Gastroenterologists in New Delhi, type 1 HRS patients can survive for a longer period of time if a liver transplant is performed as quickly as possible.

Is Hepatorenal Syndrome curable? What are its possible signs or symptoms?

If you experience HRS symptoms, then seek medical professional help immediately as they need quick medical emergency. Following are its symptoms:

  • The confused state of mind
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Sudden weight gain
  • Dementia
  • Jaundice: Yellowish skin color
  • Decreased urination
  • Swelling in the abdomen
  • Dark-colored urine

What causes Hepatorenal Syndrome?

Hepatorenal Syndrome is a complicated liver disease which is mainly caused by cirrhosis of the liver. The occurrence of cirrhosis is directly proportional to hepatorenal syndrome. Other causes are as follows:

  • Fluctuation in the blood pressure levels
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Other infections in the kidneys
  • Acute alcoholic hepatitis
  • Use of diuretics
  • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

What are the factors helpful in diagnosing HRS?

If you experience any early possible signs or symptoms, then it’s best to get it diagnosed at its earliest. Your doctor may look into the following signs:

  • Fluid buildup in the abdomen
  • Swelling in the breast tissue
  • Sores on the skin
  • Jaundice

Your doctor may also conduct blood and urine tests that will help him to discover the status of your liver and kidney functioning abilities. Somehow, if cirrhosis isn’t the cause behind HRS, then your doctor may conduct additional tests to diagnose if it’s alcoholic or viral hepatitis.

What are the treatments required to cure hepatorenal syndrome?

  • The treatment is performed according to the cause that is affecting you. To normalize the blood pressure level that usually remains low, you are given prescribed medications called vasoconstrictors.
  • Dialysis can also be performed to improve the functioning of the pair of the kidneys. It filters out wastes, excess salt and water from the blood.
  • In severe cases, liver transplants are performed. However, it is not easily available and the patient has to wait in the waiting list. Sometimes, the patient dies before a liver is available. If the patient gets a liver, then the survival chances are improved at a good rate.

HRS is fatal and complications begin to appear at the end-stage of the kidney disease such as fluid overload, secondary infections as well as organ damage. Sometimes, a person can even go to coma.

Understanding Hepatorenal Syndrome and how to prevent it?

The only natural way to prevent from HRS is to keep your liver healthy. By avoiding drinking excess liquor, you can prevent yourself from cirrhosis.

To prevent yourself hepatitis A and B, get vaccinated regularly. There is no vaccine available to cure hepatitis C. however, you can prevent yourself from hepatitis C by:

  • Washing your hands before and after meals, even after shaking hands.
  • Asking your sex partner to get tested for hepatitis C.
  • Not sharing syringes with anyone.
  • Not using illegal, life-threatening drugs.
  • Practicing safe sex.

Conclusion:

There are some non-preventive causes of cirrhosis. Therefore, if you’re at risk of developing cirrhosis, consult medical help to get yourself tested. Your doctor may perform some blood and imaging tests to identify the early signs of the condition.

OCD Symptoms: How to Detect OCD in Yourself or Loved Ones

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Everyone’s heard of obsessive-compulsive disorder, but not many people actually understand it. The term ‘OCD’ gets tossed around all the time, often in a joking manner.

But OCD is a very real, very serious disorder that affects 1 in 40 adults in the United States.

The first step in living with OCD is understanding it. If you suspect that you or a loved one are struggling with OCD, be sure to keep reading.

Join us below as we explore OCD along with some of the more common OCD symptoms.

What Is OCD?

We hear it all the time. Someone needs something done a certain way, so they’re jokingly told they have OCD. What may seem like a harmless rib minimizes a serious disorder.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a disorder in which a person has constant, unwavering thoughts and feelings and must engage in a set of behaviors or acknowledge these thoughts to satiate said compulsions.

Unfortunately, that satiation is temporary, and these thought patterns or behavioral drives often pop up sooner rather than later.

Common thought patterns and behavioral needs include:

  • A desire to hurt one’s self or another.
  • A need to avoid germs and dirt at all costs.
  • Recurring negative thought patterns.
  • Picking at one’s skin or fingers.
  • Repetitive inappropriate thought patterns.
  • Avoidance of situations to minimize potential embarrassment.

If you’re already living with a mental health condition, some of these symptoms may sound familiar to you. In fact, you’ve likely noticed some major commonalities between anxiety, depression treatment, and OCD.

While it’s true that OCD shares many signs and symptoms with other mental health conditions, it isn’t an offshoot of anxiety, as many believe.

OCD Symptoms

Now that we’ve spent a bit of time learning more about the details of what OCD is and isn’t, let’s talk more in-depth about some of the most common symptoms of OCD.

Constant Worry

The underlying factor tying each symptom of OCD together is a constant sense of dread, not unlike that experienced in those living with an anxiety disorder treatment.

A person living with OCD often feels like if he or she doesn’t meet their needs or adhere to their thought patterns — no matter how negative — something catastrophic will occur.

On a smaller scale, that sense of worry translates to social situations, too. As mentioned before, many people living with OCD have a distinct fear of embarrassment.

As a result, they may abstain from social situations or speaking in a group setting.

Ritualistic Behavior

Ritualistic behavior is common among those with OCD but is most prominent in those with deep religious beliefs.

On their own, ritualistic behaviors aren’t inherently a bad thing. In fact, they can bring a sense of order to our lives.

Things like going to church or praying, scheduled self-care, or regular visits with friends are healthy activities that can add value to our lives.

Trouble arises when these behaviors become compulsions and start to overwhelm a person.

Take prayer, for instance. A person may believe that if he or she doesn’t pray in an exact way each time, their god will become angry with them. Accordingly, a person may feel the need to engage in the same prayer, word for word.

Obsession with ‘Sets’ of Activities

Not only will a person with OCD feel that they need to complete a certain task in a pre-determined way, but it must be done so a specific number of times.

Those with OCD may have an obsession with certain numbers and patterns.

For the sake of simplicity, we’ll continue with the prayer example. Not only does a person with OCD feel the need to pray in a certain way, but they must also do so in multiples.

So while most people would pray once and feel satisfied, a person living with OCD may need to pray six or seven times to get that same sense of calm.

Negative Self-Talk

Recurring thought patterns are an unfortunate part of OCD. More often than not, these thoughts are directed inward at the self and tend to be extremely unfair or harsh.

And since they’re recurring, it’s all too easy to become numb to these thoughts. While a person may think, “I look ugly today” once and shrug it off, when repeated, these thoughts can wear the thinker down.

As the saying goes, perception is reality. Once these thought patterns become established, the thinker then accepts them as fact. Soon, these constant negative thoughts can have a negative impact on a person’s self-esteem.

Perfectionism

Given the predisposition for a fear of mistakes as well as constant negative self-talk, a person with OCD will often go above and beyond to make sure things in their life appear perfect.

Should they make a mistake, no matter how slight, they’ll often ruminate on the error for days, weeks, or even years on end.

This sense of perfectionism overlaps with recurring negative self-talk, as well as compulsive cognitions.

OCD Treatments

There is hope for those living with OCD. While the disorder can be disruptive and frustrating, it’s also quite manageable with some work and lifestyle changes.

Cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, is the most commonly used form of OCD treatment and aims to help patients become more aware of their thought patterns. This awareness gives the patient power, allowing them to recognize when they’re getting carried away and redirect their thought patterns in a healthier, safer manner.

Certain antidepressants may be effective, as well. Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are commonly cited medications with a record of success in OCD treatment.

There Is Hope

Living with OCD symptoms can be maddening. It can feel like you’re alone, trapped in your own head.

But if OCD is affecting the lives of yourself or a loved one, know that there is hope. Know that you’ve learned about the disorder, it’s time to do something about it. Life with OCD may be tough at times, but partnering with a professional therapist can help you manage.

Schedule an appointment today and take your life back from OCD.

prostate cancer types, causes, treatment

Prostate Cancer – Types, causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis

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In the male reproductive system when the cancer cells are developed in the gland called prostate gland it is known as prostate cancer. Mostly it grows slowly, but in some cases aggressive growth of prostate cancer is seen.  From the prostate the cancer cells may spread to other parts of the body, specially bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause difficulty in urinating ,problems during sexual intercourse, pain or erectile dysfunction. Other than this problems increase in the later stages of this disease.

Types of Prostate Cancer

There are various types of prostate cancer which can occur in different parts of prostate. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is the precursor to prostate cancer, which is also seen in many different locations of prostate. There are many different kinds of prostate cancer but around 95% of times its is of type which is called as adenocarcinoma. It is the most widespread type because of which it has become synonym of term prostate cancer.  

  • Adenocarcinoma: peripheral zone which is the main glandular zone of the prostate , is the most common site of prostate cancer.in order to derive the meaning of the term adenocarcinoma we split it, Adeno means pertaining to a gland, and whilst carcinoma means cancer that develops in epithelial cells. Epithelial is the term which relates to the cells that surround the organs or glands of the body.
  • Small cell carcinoma: This type of cancer typically forms at nerve cells and is made up of small round cells. This type of prostate cancer is very aggressive in nature and it is harder to detect it as it does not lead to an increase in prostate specific antigens.therefore at the time of detection it is already in advanced form.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: As in small cell carcinoma there is no increase in prostate specific antigens when it is present and it is non glandular cancer. This type of cancer is also very aggressive in nature. There are also some other rare forms of prostate cancer which includes sarcomas and transitional cell carcinoma. The transitional cell carcinoma develops rarely in the prostate but it is derived from primary tumor present in the bladder or urethra.

Causes of Prostate Cancer:

There is no specific cause of prostate cancer. The basic risk factor includes family history and age, it is very uncommon in men those are younger than 45, but gradually with increasing age it becomes common. At the time of diagnosis the average age is 70 years. Risk of having prostate cancer is  double for the men who have first degree family member with prostate cancer than in men without prostate cancer in the family.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

This disease is accompanied by number of unique symptoms because of the location of the prostate in the body. Due to cancer, as the prostate enlarges the urethra is pinched tighter within the prostate. Because of the narrow tube it becomes much harder for urine to make its way through urethra and out of the body. This results in four primary  urinary problems which are:

  • Frequency of urination: urinating much more often than normal
  • Not being able to urinate
  • Urgency for urination – having a sensation that you need to urinate immediately.
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Nocturia – it is the problem when you need to get up to urinate multiple times during the night.
  • Hesitancy – it is the difficulty suffered in starting the urine stream.

These symptoms are direct result of urethra being pinched closed by enlarged prostate. Some other less common symptoms are:

  • Blood in the urine and the semen
  • Impotence that is new onset erectile dysfunction
  • Severe pain in bone majorly in lower back ,hips or ribs.
  • Loss of bladder control

Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer:

Many tests can be done to determine if someone is suffering from prostate cancer. The Medical health history of the patient is checked before any other diagnosis.the test which are needed to diagnose prostate cancer are:

  • PSA (prostate specific antigen) test of blood
  • DRE– Digital Rectal Examination and Transrectal ultrasound is also performed in order to aid diagnosis
  • To determine the stage of cancer, imaging studies like bone CT scan or MRI scan
  • Urinalysis
  • Urine Flow Rate
  • Transrectal Ultrasound and Prostate Biopsy
  • Abdominal Ultrasound
  • Cystoscopy

Types of Prostate Surgery

The expert team of doctors decide the type of surgery to be performed which depends on the diagnosis and the severity of the cancer . the treatment can be non invasive procedure without hospitalization or it can be standard surgeries necessitating hospital stay.

  • Noninvasive Procedures: This procedure is conducted on outpatient basis and does not require anesthesia, this procedure includes:
    • PVP which is photoselective vaporization of the prostate
    • TUIP that is transurethral incision of the prostate
    • TUNA that is transurethral needle ablation
    • TUMT (transurethral microwave thermotherapy).
    • TUVP (transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate)
  • Invasive Surgeries: this type of surgery involves hospital stay and general anesthesia is given to the patient. This procedure includes:
    • TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate)
    • Open prostatectomy,in which the surgeon removes the prostate through a small incision made in the lower abdomen.

Types of Prostate Cancer Surgery

Depending on the patients health condition , age , expected life span , stage and grade of cancer the type of treatment procedure is selected. Prostate cancer can be treated in many ways. In some conditions even combinations of treatments can be used. Prostate cancer surgery can be of following types:

  • Radical Prostatectomy ( Open and Laparoscopy Both )
  • Robotic Prostatectomy ( Da Vinci Technology)
  • Laser Surgery for Prostate Cancer ( Holmium Laser )
  • HIFU ( High Intensity Frequency Ultrasound)
  • Green Light Laser (PVP Technology)
  • Brachytherapy ( Seed Guided Radiation)

Prostate Cancer Surgery in India

India is recognised as one of the best medical destination for prostate cancer surgery. Vaidam which is NABH certified medical tourism adviser helps you to get complete knowledge on Prostate Cancer – Surgical and Cost in India. The surgeons in India are highly qualified and have years of experience and are affiliated in many renowned medical organizations.The hospitals in India are well equipped with advanced medical treatment and methodologies and all this is available at much reasonable costs as compared to other countries.

All you need to do is send your enquiry on the Vaidam’s portal or give a call and expert medical adviser will get in touch with you to provide you with all the needed information and assistance.

Cancer

Need to Know Types, Causes and Symptoms of Cancer?

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Cancer is definitely not a solitary malady however a class of sicknesses which are normally described by irregular and crazy development in the human body cells. These irregular cell development prompts attack of other ordinary cells around them prompting their annihilation. The harmful cells partition in a wild design and structure bumps or tissue masses known as tumors. These tumors influence the body part where they develop and disturb their ordinary working. The harmful cells likewise spread to different parts of the body through blood or lymph and create additional cell obliteration.

Oncologists are doctors or scientists who learn about the conclusion, treatment and beyond any doubt of disease. The investigation of disease is without anyone else’s input known as oncology.

How to effective cancer?

The infection carcer kills a great many people around the globe consistently. It is unsafe and dangerous when it creates as tumors and begins spreading around. The cells may travel through the body through lymph frameworks or the blood and can obliterate the other solid cells in the body. Such a procedure is known attack and influences other inside organs other than its place of harmful cause. Such a tumor, that develops, attacks and spreads annihilating different tissues is known as a metastasized tumor and is an intense condition which is on occasion past treatment levels.

Symptoms of Cancer

  • Skin changes, such as: A new mole or a change in an existing mole. …
  • Breast changes, such as: …
  • A thickening or lump on or under the skin.
  • Hoarseness or cough that does not go away.
  • Changes in bowel habits.
  • Difficult or painful urination.
  • Problems with eating, such as: …
  • Weight gain or loss with no known reason.

Some Types of Cancer You Should Know About:

  1. Anal:- An inch and a half long rear-end connects the digestive organ to the section through which stool is discharged. Any tumor which isn’t favorable in nature that happens here can be harmful. This will cause dying, and you may watch release or bump arrangement.
  2. Bone:  The most widely recognized kind of this sickness setup is named as Osteosarcoma and it happens generally to people matured between 10 to 30 years old. The tumor by and large begins from the arms or pelvis or the leg bones. Chondrosarcoma is another variation of the bone malignancy which is influences the ligament tissues.
  3. Breast: This is another serious kind of cancer that happens in the bosom tissues of both female and male. A dangerous tumor shaped by harmful cells is framed which at that point becomes wild and metastasize or begins spreading to different parts of the body.
  4. Cervical: The lower some portion of the uterus that interfaces the upper piece of the uterus with the vagina is named as cervix. The cells of cervix demonstrate some pre-changes which if not treated in time prompts cervical malignant growth. Through the Pap test the specialists can decide whether the cervix cells are demonstrating the manifestations of pre-destructive side effects.
  5. Stomach: The coating of stomach is influenced by this sort of disease for a since a long time ago, unnoticed timeframe. The pre-dangerous changes are regularly in secret and that is the reason the disease isn’t identified early.

Knowing the most common symptoms of cancer doctor in Chennai and checking yourself at the doctor if any of those symptoms exist is important. By doing so, cancer can be found earlier and the survival rate will be higher.

liver disease

What are the early possible signs of liver problems?

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Are you alcoholic or non-alcoholic? If alcoholic, then what is your intake amount?

Have you ever thought how can excess liquor affect your liver? Let’s discuss it.  

A liver, being the largest organ in the body, damaged due to over-consumption of alcohol or severe infections like hepatitis B and C could lead to cirrhosis.

Did you know?

In the United States, more than 31,000 people die of cirrhosis liver every year. More than 40 percent of alcoholic hepatitis cases turn into cirrhosis in case of excess liquor. This leads to a number of deaths and serious illnesses.

What is liver disease?

Liver disease can happen due to genetics or certain factors such as virus or alcohol. Overweight and obese are also associated with liver disease. If liver damage lasts long, then it could also lead to liver failure.

What are its associated symptoms or signs?

One has to be alert while facing the following symptoms and consult a good doctor immediately:

  • Yellowish skin and eyes which means jaundice
  • Severe abdominal pain as well as swelling
  • Dark yellowish color of urine
  • Swollen legs and ankles
  • Tar-colored or bloody stool
  • Extreme tiredness
  • Nausea
  • Loss in appetite

If these worrying signs persist longer, then make an appointment with a good liver specialist. There are several best hepatology hospitals in India with a well-qualified team of hepatologists. Get in touch with them to get treated as soon as possible.

What are its possible causes?

There are many causes which could lead to liver damage. Some of them are:

Infections: Once viruses or parasites enter into your body, they act fastly. This leads to inflammation, thereby, making liver dysfunctional. These viruses can contact you via semen, blood, contaminated food or water, a person who is already infected. Hepatitis A, B or C due to hepatitis virus are the common types of liver infections.

Abnormal Immune System: A condition develops when the immune system attacks the liver. Chronic abdominal pain, joint pain or fatigue are some of the known signs an infected person develops. This condition is known as autoimmune liver disease. Autoimmune hepatitis is one of its types that has 83.8% to 94% of chances of 10-year survival rate, if diagnosed early.

Genetics: If a liver disease runs in your family, then you have strong chances of having liver infections. Such diseases are Hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease and Alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency.

What are the relevant risk factors that can easily infect one’s liver?

There are many factors that can infect the liver such as:

  • Diabetes
  • Unprotected sex
  • Exposure to environmental pollutants
  • Tattoos
  • Piercings
  • Shared needles for injecting drugs
  • Heavy consumption of liquor

What changes can help you prevent from liver disease?

 

  • Limit your liquor consumption: If you drink heavily, then it’s high time to limit its intake. Women must have one drink a day while it could be up to two drinks for men. It’s a tensed situation if a woman intakes more than eights drinks per week and a man has more than 15 drinks every week.
  • Healthy Lifestyle: It is important to follow a healthy lifestyle, diet and regular exercise routine. Also, drink eight ounces of water every day.
  • Avoid exposure to environmental pollutants: When you use pesticides or other toxin chemicals, always cover your nose and mouth as you may inhale them while spraying.
  • Avoid contact with infected people: Hepatitis viruses are contagious, therefore, protect yourself from used needles, infected peoples’ blood or body fluids.
  • Vaccination: if you’re prone to get infected with a hepatitis virus, talk to your doctor and get vaccinated immediately.

 

Final Thoughts:

If you’re on medications, take recommendations from the doctor first. Don’t do over-the-counter drugs. Also, avoid alcohol when you’re on medications. Your health is your concern, not anyone else’s.

Know Patent Ductus Arteriosus Risk Factor for Child

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Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart. The opening is called Ductus Arteriosus, is a normal part of a baby’s circulatory system before birth that usually closes shortly after birth. when the baby is still in mother’s womb, they didn’t require lungs to supply oxygen because they receive oxygen from their mother. Hence there is no need for the heart to pump blood to the lungs. The Ductus Arteriosus is present in all babies while still in the womb, and it allows blood to bypass the lungs.

In most babies who have a normal heart, PDA will shrink and close by its own. the ductus arteriosus usually closes within the first hours of life. sometimes, the Ductus Arteriosus does not close on its own. This is known as a Patent Ductus Arteriosus. Mostly this condition is seen in premature babies, sometimes it has also appeared in full-term babies. Small PDA that doesn’t close early will seal up on their own by the time the child is a year old. If PDA stays open for longer, then the extra blood will flow to the lungs.

Signs & Symptoms of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

the PDA symptoms vary with the size of the defect and whether the baby is full term or premature. A small PDA might cause no signs or symptoms and justify undetected for some time. A large PDA shows signs of heart failure as soon after birth.

Dr. Suresh Rao from Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital says” the basic symptoms of heart problems are: a child may require ventilation, a child may not gain weight, they get record Respiratory infection”.

A large PDA found during childhood might cause:

  • Poor eating
  • Sweating with crying or eating
  • Persistent fast breathing or breathlessness
  • Easy tiring
  • Rapid heart rate

Symptoms of PDA

  • Abounding (strong and forceful) pulse
  • Fast breathing
  • Not feeding well
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating while feeding
  • Tiring very easily
  • Poor growth

 causes of patent ductus arteriosous


Causes of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

It is a congenital heart defect, means the problem early in the heart’s development. The cause of PDA is unknown, but genetics might play a role. PDA is common among premature babies. the connection often takes longer to close. If the connection remains open, it’s referred to as a patent ductus arteriosus.


Related Post – What is ASD repair procedure and its symptoms


Risk Factor of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

Family history and other genetic conditions:

If you have a family history of heart defect or another genetic condition such as Down syndrome, it increases the risk of having PDA.

1. Premature birth: PDA occurs in premature babies who are born too early than in babies who are born full term

2. Rubella infection during pregnancy: If the mother gets contract Rubella virus during pregnancy. your baby’s risk of heart defects increases.

3. Being born at a high altitude: Babies born above 10,000 feet have a greater risk of a PDA than babies born at lower altitudes.

4. Being female: PDA is twice common in girls.


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Complications

Small PDA might not cause complications. Larger, untreated defects could cause serious problems:

1. High blood pressure in the lungs: Too much blood circulating through the heart’s main arteries through a PDA can lead to pulmonary hypertension.

2. Heart Failure: PDA eventually cause the heart to enlarge and weaken, leading to heart failure

3. Heart infection: People who have PDA are at a higher risk of an inflammation of the heart’s inner lining than are people who have healthy hearts.

Treatment for Patent Ductus Arteriosus

The treatment for PDA will be determined by your child’s doctor based on:

  • Childs age, overall health
  • Childs medical history
  • The extent of the disease
  • the child’s tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

Expectations for the course of the ddiseased


 PAD


small Patent Ductus Arteriosus can close by its own as a child grows. A child showing symptoms will require a medical attendance and possible even a surgical repair. A cardiologist will monitor closely to see whether the PDA is closing on its own. If a PDA does not close on its own, it should be repaired to prevent lung problems. A closure of defect is usually recommended as a high risk of cardiac complications and early death related to PDA.

1. Wait and Watch:

Many times, in a premature baby, PDA close on its own. Your cardiologist will monitor a baby’s heart closely to make sure the open blood vessel is closing properly. For children who have small PDA that aren’t causing other health problems, only monitoring might be needed.

2. Medications:

In premature infant anti inflammations drugs such as indomethacin or ibuprofen (Advil, Infant’s Motrin) might be used to close the PDA. Indomethacin is related to aspirin and ibuprofen and works by stimulating the muscles inside the PDA to constrict, thereby closing the connection.

3. Surgical closure:

If the medication is not effective and a child’s condition is causing complications, surgery might be recommended. Open heart surgery is a standard surgical procedure. In this procedure, the surgeon opens the child’s ribs to reach its heart and repair the open duct using stitches or clips. After a surgery child remains in the hospital for several days. It will take a few weeks to a child to fully recover from the surgery.

4. Catheter Procedures:

Nowadays, more than 95 percent of PDAs can now be closed by catheter-based techniques. Premature babies are too small for Catheter procedure. However, if a baby doesn’t have PDA related health issues then a doctor may recommend waiting until the baby is older to repair catheter procedure to correct the PDA.

In this procedure, a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin and threaded up to the heart. Through the catheter, a plug is inserted to close the ductus arteriosus.


Related Post – ASD- What are the types, treatment and Best Doctors?


Prevention:

There is no sure way to prevent having a baby with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), however, it is important to do everything possible to have a healthy pregnancy.

1. Seek early prenatal care : Reduce stress, quit smoking, stop taking birth control pills.

2. Eat healthy Diet : Eat a proper diet, as recommend by your physician, include a vitamin supplement that contains folic acid.

3. Exercise regularly : Consult your doctor and work on your work out plan that’s right for you.

4. Avoid risk : These include harmful substances such as alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drugs.

5. Keep diabetes under control : work with your doctor to manage the condition before and during pregnancy.

6. Avoid infections : Update your vaccinations before becoming pregnant. certain infections can be harmful to a developing baby.

cardiac surgeon in india

What are the major heart surgeries?

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Cardiology is the medical branch that deals with the heart related diseases and abnormalities. And are treated by doctors know as cardiologist. In india the doctors have excelled a lot when it comes to cardiac surgery ,with the higher skills adding degrees and training from the top most medical institutes and the years of experience they have gained. Some of them are also known worldwide for their surgical skills.

There are three types of cardiac operations:

  1. Extra cardiac operations
  2. Closed intra cardiac operations
  3. Open cardiac operations

Indications for surgery

Surgery for coronary artery disease may be indicated for symptomatic or prognostic reasons .the decision to advise CABG is based on the balance between the expected benefit and the risk that the patient faces .Some of the of the principles indication are chest pain, decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries, significant left main coronary artery stenosis,three vessel disease, two vessel disease with significant proximal LAD stenosis, left main equivalant.

Investigation of Cardiac

  • ECG
  • CHEST RADIOGRAPHY
  • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
  • CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY

Preparation for surgery

Clinical assessment

Before the surgery,the severity and stability of the patient’s IHD, the presence of significant valvular disease and the status of left ventricular function should be properly evaluated.any comorbid risk factors for IHD should be documented and, in particular , the state of coexisting disease assessed.attention is paid to the presence of carotid artery diseases ,peripheral vascular disease, respiratory status, presence of diabetic complications ,significant renal dysfunction or coagulopathy . All medications taken by the patients are noted.

Risk Assessment

Risk assessment can be calculated using various scoring systems developed for cardiac surgery, including the Euro SCORE and PARSONNET .The common scoring systems stratify risk factors that are recognised which are associated with poor outcome after surgery. An rough guess of operative mortality  can be calculated and allows informed consent by the patient.

Postoperative Recovery

The majority of patients extubated a few hours after returning  from the surgery and remain in the ICU for 24 hrs or so. In some centres fast tracking appropriate patients allows earlier transfer to the recovery area or high dependency unit HDU. discharge is routinely 5-8 days after surgery.

Best Cardiac Surgeons In India | Vaidam Health

Vaidam as your medical travel partner helps you to connect with Best cardiac surgeon in India which gives quality treatment by using latest techniques that help you to recover in shortest time possible. Vaidam is ISO certified platform that gives you a complete list of best surgeons so that you can select the best one for yourself, some of the best cardiologist in India are:

 

  • Dr. Ashok Seth: Cardiac Surgeon

Chairman , MBBS, MD, FRCP, MRCP, Fellowship, 38 years of experience.He has been featured in the “LIMCA” Book of records for performing one of the highest numbers of angiographies and angioplasties in the world. He is the first cardiologist in Asia Pacific region to perform an Angioscopy and directional Atherectomy.

  • Dr. Krishna S Iyer: Pediatric Cardiologist 

Director , MBBS, MS, MCh, 30 years of experience.He has been the founder President of Asia-Pacific Paediatric Cardiac Society and has also the President of Paediatric Cardiac Society of India. He has over a hundred of research publications in both national and international journals.

 

 

  • Dr. Naresh Trehan: Cardiac Surgeon 

Chairman , MBBS, 40 years of experience.Performed over 48000  heart surgeries.Awarded the Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan and Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award and many more prestigious awards.Expertises Cardiomyoplasty, myocardial total arterial revascularization, transmyocardial laser revascularization, Reduction ventriculoplasty (Batista Operation), Heart port access surgery and robotically assisted cardiac surgery.

 

  • Dr. Ajay Kaul: Cardiac Surgeon
    Chairman , MBBS, MS, MCh, Fellowship, 36 years of experience.Dr Kaul is a versatile surgeon whose surgical skills include total Arterial coronary bypass surgery, Paediatric cardiac surgery, Valve repairs, Surgery for aneurysm and Surgery for cardiac failure. He is also well – trained for heart transplants and ventricular assist devices.He is an active member of organizations like Cardiological Society of India and Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery of India.

Heart Bypass Surgery CABG Cost In India

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Heart Bypass surgery (CABG) treats coronary heart disease with a surgical process. It improves blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart by diverting blood around narrowed or clogged parts of the major arteries. A surgeon uses blood vessels taken from another area of your body – usually the chest, leg or arm to repair the damaged arteries. The factors which are risky are mainly because of lifestyle that include:

  • saturated fats intake diet
  • Smoking cigarette
  • Obesity
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Family history of heart disease.

Treatment In India | Vaidam Health
Planning to get a treatment in India to add more years to your loved ones life you can trust Vaidam Health for all your queries. Vaidam Health Is ISO Certified platform which provides you all the information of Heart Bypass Surgery cost In India .You can submit your details in the inquiry section and Vaidam will provide a Personal Medical assistant which will help you by taking appointments for you and will provide you all the needed information and will help you with billing related queries.

Vaidam is a one shot solution for all your medical requirements In India.Patient spends around 8 days in the hospital and approximately 12 days outside the hospital.Because of the advanced equipment’s and advanced techniques like minimal invasive surgeries, the Heart Bypass Surgeries in India have achieved a great success in India.Tests required for determining CABG are Echocardiography, EKG (electrocardiogram), Blood Tests, Chest X-Ray and Coronary Angiography. Expert medical practitioners of India with all the latest techniques helps you to recover in the shortest time possible. A complete care with best services is provided In best hospitals recommended by Vaidam Health.

Different Types Of Bypass Surgeries : Doctors will recommend a certain type of bypass surgery depending on how many of your arteries are blocked.when only one artery is blocked it is single bypass surgery ,when two arteries are blocked it is double bypass surgery, when three arteries are blocked then it is triple bypass surgery, when four arteries blocked it is quadruple bypass surgery.

Why Do You Need Heart Bypass Surgery: Bypass surgery treats symptoms of coronary heart disease. When inside arteries a plague is build up that is a waxy substance which blocks blood and oxygen from reaching the heart .You may feel things like:

  • Chest pain, which is known as angina
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath

Cost Of Treatment in India

Vaidam Health is NABH certified which helps you to know the estimated cost of treatment by using the cost calculator , so that you can plan your treatment within your budget . The best of services are provided to you by Vaidam , also your treatment packages include luxuries stay and visit to the main attractions of the country.

India is one of the best medical tourism country because of the low treatment cost as compared to the other countries. With no compromise in the treatment quality and services it is the best medical tourist place.

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All you need to do is send your query in the Inquiry section or give a call on +91 965 000 1746 ,WHATS APP / VIBER +91 965 000 1746  

Our expert medical assistant will contact you as soon as they receive your query, and will provide you with all the details of the information needed and will give you best treatment plan within your budget.

Is Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer responsible for Bowel dysfunction?

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Do you know that nearly 20 percent of men who undergo radiotherapy treatment for prostate cancer suffer from bowel dysfunction including constipation, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, incontinence, etc.? It becomes embarrassing to lose control over your bladder or bowel movements. However, in some cases bowel dysfunction may not be necessarily due to cancer treatment. It is important to seek medical help before the situation goes out of hand.

To understand further, let’s discuss how your body functions.

Prostate Cancer: an Overview!

The prostate gland is a walnut-sized gland between the bladder and penis. It surrounds the urethra, a passage to the penis through which the urine and semen pass.

One out of every 5 patients suffer from bowel incontinence after getting radiotherapy treatment for prostate cancer.

What is Bowel Incontinence? What are its symptoms?

Also known as ‘Fecal Incontinence’, it is a condition in which you are unable to control over your bowel movements. From a drop while passing gas to a complete loss of bowel, it is an accidental leakage of faeces from the rectum.

You might have experienced this situation once in your lifetime. In case you face this situation prior to your treatment, then you need to look for a medical help as soon as possible.

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Some of the bowel symptoms prior to the prostate cancer treatment are:

  • Diarrhea
  • Leakage of stool, bowel incontinence
  • Excess passing of gas
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Bloating

The best part is that this problem rarely hits men and they overcome through this problem by taking medical help from the relevant specialist. Therefore, it is not a major issue among men.

How is bowel incontinence related to prostate cancer?

When the cancer in prostate starts to grow and spread to the urethra, several urinary problems including incontinence can occur. This could lead to bowel incontinence as well. This could be the case of prostate cancer to the next stage where it has spread to the spine. Eventually, these cancerous tumors start affecting spinal bones or nerves in the spinal cord that is responsible for bladder or bowel functioning. The other common way by which you suffer from such problems is prostate cancer treatment such as radiotherapy or surgery.

If it is destined, then this bowel incontinence problem can disappear on its own after a few weeks. On the contrary, the treatment radiations can permanently destroy the nerves and the incontinence disorder may not get corrected on its own.

Experiencing bowel incontinence due to spinal cord compression or prostate cancer treatment may or may not be treatable and vary from a small amount of leakage to a total loss of bowels. In some situation, proper bowel movements can be gained back once the treatment and rehabilitation process is done. However, if the recovery process isn’t happening fast or bring any positive results, then there must be some changes in your lifestyle to manage your bowel movements and this can be done by:

  • Use of anti-diarrhea agents such as immodium, lomotil
  • Avoiding foods that may disturb your digestive system
  • Following a fibre-rich diet
  • Using absorbent or scented pads
  • By doing exercises to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles.
  • By decreasing to no physical activity post meals

Final Thoughts:

Bowel incontinence caused due to compressed nerves of the spinal cord, prostate cancer treatment or expansion of prostate cancer to the bones or spine, palliative treatments could bring some relief. Your doctor would look into the matter and finalize what is best for you. It could be surgery, radiotherapy or medication course. Always remember that it is important to cope with such situations with positivity and hope. If needed, take support from a therapist or counselor.

Aortic Valve Replacement

Why is Aortic Valve Replacement necessary?

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Aortic Valve replacement is a medical procedure which is performed to treat conditions affecting the aortic valve.

What is an aortic valve?

A human heart has four valves and the aortic valve is one of them. It separates the left ventricle and aorta. It regulates blood flow through the heart. When the ventricle contracts, the aortic valve gets opened and allows blood flow from the left ventricle to aorta. Similarly, when the ventricle relaxes, the aortic valve closes its gate to blood flow in the backward direction.

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The problem arises when the aortic valve stops functioning properly and forces the heart to supply the required blood to the rest of the body. Most people suffering from aortic valve disorder don’t exhibit any kind of sign or symptom, while some people experience breathing problem, fatigue, severe chest pain, irregular heartbeat – arrhythmia and sometimes, heart failure or cardiac death. In such cases, you need to consult a well-experienced and highly-qualified doctor to avoid serious conditions.

Aortic valve replacement/repair treats condition aortic valve disorders and helps restore the blood flow thereby, leading a normal and healthy life.

Types of Disorders:

Depending on the degree of severity, signs/symptoms, the treatment is done.

Aortic Valve Regurgitation:

This condition happens when blood flows back into the left ventricle even when the ventricle is in the relaxing state. It could be due to a dysfunctional or dripping valve. An abnormal valve shape by birth is also one of the reasons responsible and is also termed as congenital heart disease.

Aortic Valve Stenosis:

It is a narrowing of the aortic valve. Some of the reasons responsible are congenital heart disease, thickening of the valve’s tissue flaps (leaflets) or post-inflammatory changes associated with rheumatic heart disease.

Congenital Heart Disease:

Although it can hit at any stage, mostly it happens when the valve doesn’t take its shape in the developing fetus. The leaflets could be absent, misshapen or the valve may not have any openings.

In some cases, it gets worse despite medical treatment. Also, this is one of the medical conditions that can not be treated only be medications. Hence, surgery is needed to remove this deformity and other complications related to the heart.

Repair or Replacement?

The decision to repair or replacement depends on the following factors:

  • Degree of severity
  • The age and overall health of the patient
  • Whether heart surgery is required to treat other heart conditions besides aortic valve disease.

Mostly, doctors opt for repair instead of replacement as it is less risky, maintaining the valve’s natural strength and restrains the patient to take blood-thinning medications which is necessary in case of replacement. It is true that not all valves can be repaired and hence, these conditions require replacement. However, both conditions are treated through an open-heart surgery which either involves an incision in the chest or through minimally invasive surgery with smaller incisions in the chest. Another procedure is transcatheter aortic valve replacement in which a catheter is inserted in the leg or chest.

Risks Associated with Repair/Replacement

Depending on the health, age, condition of valve and expertise of the medical team, the procedure is carried out. However, in both the cases, the risks are associated and they are:

  • Formation of blood clots
  • Infection
  • Valves may become dysfunctional in case of replacement
  • Heart rhythm problems
  • Bleeding
  • Stroke
  • Death

The patient needs to discuss with his/her medical team diet, medication plan, what is to be done before and post surgery. The physician may ask you to avoid driving and lifting heavy things post surgery. Once the surgery is done, the doctor will tell you when you will be able to return to perform normal activities such as walking, physical activities, etc. The medical team may also ask the patient to join a cardiac rehabilitation for quick recovery post surgery.