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Biological safety cabinets or BCS are used to provide both the clean work environment and protection for employees who can create aerosols when working with biological hazards. A biosafety cabinet is also known as biological safety cabinet which has some special appeal of its own and this has some own features and characteristics. Several different types of BSC are available and these are differentiating by the degree of biocontainment requirement. The primary purpose of a BSC is to serve as means to protect the laboratory worker and the surrounding environment from pathogens. Most biological safety cabinets are not classified under this standard because they are not typically used for large quantities of volatile chemicals. So last but not the least that the biosafety cabinet and the fume hood’s working procedures are totally different and that is why it is not possible to use a biosafety cabinet as a fume hood.
The class 2 type a biological safety cabinet is the most common safety cabinet of all the different types available. It has the common plenum from which 30% of air is exhausted and the 70% recalculated to the work area as the down flow. A key distinction is that biosafety cabinets have an internal blower motor which recalculates potentially contaminated air through HEPA filters.
Now the question where to locate this biological safety cabinet? There should have some safety procedures which must have to follow before locating any biological safety cabinet. Like-
Work zone minimum dimensions include 40” in the front of the cabinet and 12” on each side which will be finest for locating this biosafety cabinet.
A laboratory is a very delicate place; a small mistake can lead to bigger mishaps. So while working in a laboratory it is very important to be careful. Cleanroom is a solution for such problems. Cleanroom is basically a facility which is used for specialized researches and productions. These research works mainly includes the manufacture of pharmaceutical items and microprocessors.
How are cleanroom designed?
Cleanrooms are designed in such a manner that there should be contaminating sources. There should be no loop hole for the entrance of low level particulates such as airborne, dust, micro-organism or vaporized particles. Hence they are designed in such a way that the cleanliness factor is never compromised.
Cleanroom consists of cleanroom workbenches. Workstations or workbenches helps in maintaining and regulating the required environment so that they functions in a cleanroom runs smoothly without any interruptions.
A cleanroom has many applications. Let us have a look at some of the applications of cleanroom workbench in a laboratory.
Requirements for working on a cleanroom workbench in a laboratory
A cleanroom workbench is maintained just so no contaminants enter into the room. There are very restricted numbers of people who are allowed to work on a cleanroom workbench. The entry of more people can lead to the entrance of dust particles. Cleanroom workbenches can vary in sizes as well depending on the type of work which has to be conducted on the workbench. For smaller experiments a workbench of smaller sizes is enough but for bigger tasks to take up the size of the cleanroom as well as the workbench should be big enough in size.
There are uniforms for the people who work in the cleanroom workbench. Just to avoid any entry of unwanted particles these rules are strictly followed by all the personnel who works on a cleanroom workbench. The uniforms are specially designed to capture or lock all the contaminants which are generated by the body or the skin.
People who work on a Recirculating Clean Bench are highly trained professionals. They are trained very precisely in contamination control theory. The entry and exit in a cleanroom is made through airlock. This is done so that there is less chance of any harmful substance entering into the room and contaminates any other working projects.
Uniform requirements to work on a cleanroom workbench
As mentioned earlier the cleanroom workbench works have special uniforms to work in such an environment. Their uniforms mostly consists of boots and shoes, aprons, bouffant caps, beard cover, lab coats and face masks, gowns and gloves and also shoe covers. These are the major things which the workers need to possess before entering a cleanroom.
Hence, these are the uses and requirements of a cleanroom workbench in a laboratory.
The truth is that majority of the people, of all ages and gender are found to ignore to the issues faced by their bodies and hence, tend to ignore the symptoms and signs displayed by their body as a warning for needing greater care. It is considered to be a common reason for patients suffering from stomach cancer to not get second lease of life due to lack of timely and proper treatment. If such symptoms arise, then they are mostly ignored, only to find out that the cancer has come to the last stage, whereby treatment becomes impossible. But the fact is that identifying stomach cancer symptoms can be real tough. Some are found to be so mild and common such that many simply ignore them until they have been diagnosed completely. Therefore, such symptoms if faced with should not be overlooked, ignored or neglected at any point of time. Since Stomach Cancer Treatment Cost in India is quite affordable, the average person does not have to worry about undergoing expensive treatments.
Some symptoms that are generally ignored
Therefore, it will be vital for every person to give his/her body the kind of credit that it deserves. Proper attention needs to be paid if something unusual is experienced, since the body could be telling something that needs to be heeded immediately and proper action taken. The most common, mildest and earliest symptoms associated with stomach cancer are undoubtedly the most important. It entirely depends upon how fast the person can react to the symptoms and treat the issue. Faster actions and checking with the top doctors can help save precious life.
Stomach Cancer Treatment Cost in India is very much reasonable allowing everyone to get proper and complete treatment.
While being a little overweight won’t necessarily cause any noticeable health problems, a few extra kilograms more and you may start to develop symptoms that negatively affect your daily life.
Losing weight can bring with it a range of amazing health benefits and with a few simple changes to your diet and a level of physical activity added to your daily routine, it can make a huge difference to the way you look and feel.
And it really should be as simple as that, except for the fact that we are typically more sedentary than we’ve ever been and have access to more convenient foods. The result: A serious global weight gain.Continue reading
The number of people facing joint problems is increasing at a rapid pace. This problem is noticed mostly among seniors and the elderly people. Even those who are into specific occupations and professions are faced with such problems and hence, will require to take the assistance of the best orthopedic surgeons in chennai. The qualified and highly respected surgeons are sure to recommend non-operative and operative techniques. Continue reading
Chemotherapy is a common medical procedure that is being recommended to patients all over the world by qualified and experienced doctors. This is to provide treatment for various types of ailments. But still, patients are found to be concerned with regards to the usage of chemotherapy drugs including its side effects. With cost of chemotherapy in india being reasonable, patients can now lead a disease-free life.
It is used mainly for treating cancer, which is considered to be a dangerous and life threatening disease. It is impotent to diagnose this ailment on time, so as to avail correct and effective treatment. This is often delivered through targeted drug therapy, radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy.
The cost of chemotherapy in india is quite affordable allowing cancer patients to get back to their normal lives.
Effective Tips to Find The Best Orthopedic Doctors
A proficient orthopedic medical procedure is intended to treat the issue of the musculoskeletal system that outcome from games wounds or conditions like Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, joint pain, knee, and hip issues. The wellbeing and mending of joints, ligaments, tendons, and bones go under the aegis of orthopedic consideration. An orthopedic medical procedure is most famously used to correct serious knee wounds that outcome from injury or stress coming about because of extraordinary games exercises. An orthopedic medical procedure is likewise successful in the fix of hip wounds that outcome from injury, breaks or joint inflammation. Before, conditions like a tennis elbow were hard to treat. However, the orthopedic medical procedure has made it feasible for sportspeople to recover their movement after they have been dealt with.
Finding the Best Orthopedic Surgeon
Check the qualifications of any doctor or specialist through a State, Provincial or National Board of Orthopedic Surgeons to discover data about a specific doctor, specialist or authority in different orthopedic treatment and careful fields. An orthopedic specialist can have some expertise in certain body regions. Some spend significant time in fields, for example, sports or injury medication, while others represent considerable authority in the treatment of joint inflammation. Get some information about preparing, knowledge, and qualifications before choosing an orthopedic specialist in Gurgaon, regardless of where you go. Undoubtedly, India has turned into the therapeutic the travel industry capital of the cutting edge world for Orthopedic medical procedure and Knee Surgery. Offering the most recent mechanical advances, experienced and master doctors and specialists and the absolute best in patient consideration.
State-of-the-art orthopedic facilities and highly trained and experienced orthopedic surgeons in India offer knee techniques and procedures such as:
• Arthroscopic meniscectomy
• Bilateral knee replacement
• Meniscal repair
• ACL reconstruction
• PCL reconstruction
• Patellar stabilization
• Total knee replacement
• Unicondylar knee replacement
Some of the tips, which can help you to find the best orthopedic surgeon, are:
• Checking the credentials of the orthopedic surgeon:
You should to dependably take some time in auditing about the specialist’s understanding, expertise, instructive foundation, therapeutic degree, and the preparation. You should to also look in the event that he/she is affirmed from the board.
• Contact your Local Doctor: Take help from your neighborhood doctor, and get a rundown of the best orthopedic specialists, who are had practical experience in the specific region you require. For instance, on the off chance that you need to go for knee substitution, at that point you should look at someone who has a specialization in that.
• Inquire about the skill:
You can assess the expertise by asking the specialist different inquiries like the number of medical procedures they perform every year. An exceedingly fruitful careful practice implies, if the specialist performs about in excess of 25 medical procedures of a specific sort for every year. You ought to likewise ask how they manage the confusing cases.
• Go for a consultation: Once you make the list of the orthopedic surgeons, the next step should be to schedule an appointment for a consultation with the doctors. Discuss your problem in details with them and take their opinion. The discussion with the doctors will help you decide who the right surgeon for you is.
The term tumor refers to the presence of an abnormal mass of cells that form a pathological tissue within healthy tissue. When this neoformation grows in the context of the vertebral column, we speak of a spinal tumor.
The causes of spinal tumor
The tumors of the back can arise from lesions that develop in the vertebral column, from areas adjacent to the column itself or from localizations, by blood or lymphatic route, of malignant lesions born at a distance. Neoplasms of the spine are distinguished into primary and secondary tumors.
Primary tumors originate from the cells that make up the skeleton of the column itself (for example from cartilages or bone) while secondary or metastatic tumors originate from tissues of other organs (prostate, breast, kidney, lungs, lymphatic system, etc.) and grow in the spinal column.
The primary tumors of the spine are then distinguished as benign and malignant on the basis of their intrinsic characteristics of aggressiveness towards neighboring tissues or based on their ability to metastasize at a distance. By contrast, secondary tumors of the spine are by definition malignant and represent the tumor lesion most frequently observed by orthopedists.
Vertebral tumors can remain asymptomatic for a long time leading to an inevitable diagnostic and therapeutic delay.
When the symptoms manifest, they are usually the result of an expansion of the tumor mass beyond the bony limits with vertebral destruction and consequent vertebral instability, compression or invasion of the marrow and of the spinal roots.
The symptoms caused by a neoplasm of the vertebral column are many – one can find non-specific symptoms such as weight loss, generalized malaise, and fever, but more frequently the patient complains of pain localized at the site of the tumor.
The neoplastic pain is typically continuous, often occurs at night and responds little to common anti-inflammatory drugs and painkillers.
The computerized tomography (CT) is the best tool for the study of bone tissue and allows optimal visualization of the skeletal lesion. In the case of the tumor, this appears as an osteolytic lesion, which, in other words, affects and destroys the bone tissue.
In recent years a particularly effective method has been introduced in the diagnosis of tumors, positron emission tomography (PET), which identifies metabolically very active areas of the body, as in the case of neoplasms.
The final assessment is, however, the histological examination, performed after bone or soft tissue biopsy. The result allows distinguishing with absolute certainty the benign formations from the malignant ones, the primary tumor from the secondary ones
The treatment for spinal tumor
The tumors of the vertebral column are treated differently, depending on the type of tumor (primary or secondary), of its aggressiveness (benign or malignant) and of the histotype and, therefore, of its greater or lesser sensitivity to chemotherapy and to radiotherapy.
In principle, the concept holds that the tumor mass must be removed entirely. If this possibility is not feasible, instead of a therapeutic intervention, only palliative therapy can be planned.
Another fundamental aspect of the choice of the treatment of vertebral neoplasms is the presence of a pathological fracture with consequent vertebral instability. This condition, in addition to being very painful, is also dangerous as it increases the risk of compression and neurological damage. Therefore, faced with a fracture of this type, it is necessary to protect the patient with a suitable rigid or semi-rigid corset and, in some cases, it is necessary to opt for a vertebral stabilization surgical operation in order to to avoid the risk of neurological compression.
Surgery, therefore, plays a crucial role in the treatment of tumors of the spine. It aims fundamentally at restoring stability and removing the tumor mass. This last option, however, may, for purely anatomical reasons, be challenging because it is necessary to protect and preserve fundamental neighboring structures including spinal cord, nerve roots, large arterial and venous vessels.
There are several top orthopedic hospitals in India that carry out spinal tumor surgery. The most well known among these are Christian Medical College at Vellore and Fortis Memorial Research Institute at Gurgaon. Operation on the spine by best surgeons may cost about INR 4 lakhs, or USD 5,500 and chemotherapy may require an additional INR 6 lakhs or USD 8,300 for 3 cycles.
Meningiomas are brain tumors, usually benign, that starts in the cells that cover the surface of the brain. They grow in the region of the cerebral hemispheres or at the level of the cranial base (meningioma of the cavernous sinus), and are characterized by rather slow growth and in most cases without infiltration of the brain tissue that surrounds them.
Among the first manifestations of meningioma, is epilepsy and alterations of behavior. Depending on the precise location of the meningioma, there may be difficulty speaking or moving an arm or leg. The headache which is the most common symptom for many other brain diseases, in this case, is rather rare. In some cases, discoloration of the scalp may also occur at the site of the meningioma, which takes the form of the meningioma itself. They are rounded and have a diameter of a few centimeters.
Often the diagnosis of meningioma occurs in a completely random manner when tests are prescribed such as MRI or CT scan to check other ongoing problems (for example for a history of headache or a head injury). This happens because in 70% of the cases the meningiomas are asymptomatic.
Once the diagnosis of meningioma has been ascertained, the neurosurgeon can evaluate different treatment options that mainly depend on the nature of the pathology.
The first therapeutic indication is usually represented by the surgical intervention that allows the total or partial removal of the tumor. In the case of meningiomas of the skull base, and in particular of the cavernous sinus, the treatment of stereotactic radiosurgery with Gamma Knife is beneficial, which allows excellent control of tumor growth with very low risks. Radiation therapy, on the other hand, is indicated in the presence of an aggressive meningioma or as a complement to surgery.
Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a technique for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery. It can be useful for intervening on primitive brain tumors, such as meningiomas. Treatment with Gamma Knife allows targeting the meningioma with a beam of radiation.
The patient will be slightly sedated, then the stereotaxic helmet will be applied to him with local anesthesia. He will be subjected to MRI tests of the brain with gadolinium. These images allow the specialist to plan the treatment. Once the plan is completed, the patient will be lying down with the stereotaxic helmet attached to the Gamma Knife couch. The procedure can last from one to six hours, depending on the patient’s needs and the target to be irradiated.
The Gamma Knife treatment is a minimally invasive procedure, takes place in a single session and is free of pain and surgical incisions. The process is almost always outpatient, and the discharge of the patient usually takes place the same day.
The procedure is not painful, the patient may experience pain only when positioning the four small metal pins to stabilize the helmet. During the actual treatment, the patient will initially perceive slight movements of adaptation of the head to the machine, but will not feel either pain or noise.
The risks associated with this procedure can be neurological disorders, stroke, epileptic seizures, pain following treatment in a minute number of people.
Patients with meningiomas that do not exceed 3.5 cm in diameter may be treated.
The results of the procedure are not immediate. The patient will be informed about the checks to be carried out at the time of discharge.
The effect of radiation occurs after weeks and/or months. Sometimes the irradiation with Gamma Knife may not be sufficient to solve the problem, and the neoplasm could continue to grow. Therefore, further treatments may be necessary, either Gamma Knife or craniotomy surgery.
Gamma Knife surgery is done at many hospitals in India such as PGIMER in Chandigarh and Hinduja Hospital in Bangalore. The most well-known center is of course at NIMHANS Bangalore. The cost ranges from INR 1 lakh to 2 lakhs per session or cycle or USD 1,400 to 1,800. If craniotomy is required, that is about the same cost as brain tumor operations and ranges between INR 3 lakhs and 5 lakhs or USD 4,200 and 7,000.
There are many couples all over the world who even after several years of marriage are finding it difficult to conceive their child. There may arise infertility issues in any of the partner, be it the husband or the wife. It is a wrong notion that it is only the female partner who is not able to get pregnant. According to the health experts, infertility issues suffered by any of the partner are likely to become a major hurdle towards conceiving a biological baby. Fortunately, the introduction of advanced technology has made it possible for such couples to enjoy availing IVF (Invitro Fertilization) procedure to conceive their own babies. This particular remedy has proven to be a boon for the millions who now are able to enjoy its numerous benefits. They can contact the Best IVF Hospital in India to get their issues diagnosed and to seek the most appropriate remedy.
IVF is considered to be a procedure involving assisted reproduction to help couples suffering from fertility issues and not able to conceive a child. A special medication is provided to the female partner for ovary stimulation, thereby leading to enhanced egg production. Such eggs are harvested surgically after they ripen. Then from male partner is taken sperms, which gets combined in the lab with the eggs of the female partner. It is the lab setting that the embryos are allowed to grow for about 3-5 days. The viable embryos are implanted onto the uterus of the woman. After a week, the conducts a pregnancy test to check the progress results of the implanted embryos. Pregnancy can be expected during the very first cycle or depending upon 30% average success rate. For the IVF to achieve success and for pregnancy to take place, there might be required more than a single cycle.
The health experts however, opine that conducting IVF procedure does not actually guarantee 100% pregnancy. Rather, it boosts the chances and has become the method of choice for millions all over the world. There have been successful stories of couples who have been able to conceive this artificial way and have brought joy to their families. Again, the selection of the doctor and the facility is of great importance to make this treatment procedure a grand success.
However with age, the chances of success decrease tremendously. Hence, medical experts recommend IVF before 35-40 ages. There have also been surprising reports of women being on their brink of menopause to get pregnant on availing IVF treatment from the best IVF hospital in India. But this is rather not the recommended age. The much younger the woman is, more are likely to be enjoyed the chances of success. Although this procedure is surrounded by some religious, moral and ethical debate, there is no denying this fact that childless couples can once again dream of having their own biological child and become parents like the others. This procedure is completely safe and the number of couples availing it is only increasing with numbers with each passing year.